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COVID-19: Impact on migrant workers and country response in Malaysia

COVID-19: Impact on migrant workers and country response in Malaysia

Country brief prepared by the ILO’s Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on migrant workers, and country responses.

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COVID-19: Impact on migrant workers and country response in Thailand

COVID-19: Impact on migrant workers and country response in Thailand

Country brief prepared by the ILO’s Country Office for Thailand on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on migrant workers, and country's responses.

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Recruitment fees and related costs: What migrant workers from Cambodia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and Myanmar pay to work in Thailand

Recruitment fees and related costs: What migrant workers from Cambodia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, and Myanmar pay to work in Thailand

The focus is on low-skilled migrant workers who are the most vulnerable to exploitation and abuse because of their low educational qualifications and limited asset base. The key conclusion is that despite international commitments to eliminate worker-paid recruitment fees and costs, low-skilled migrant workers still carry the financial burden for their recruitment. The average cost is relatively low within the corridors surveyed, mostly because of low travel costs. Despite this, there is scope to reduce the costs further. The report suggests several policy recommendations for reducing recruitment fees and related costs and thus the vulnerability of migrants, which would increase the development potential of international labour migration. The survey used a standard methodology developed by the World Bank-led Global Knowledge Partnership on Migration and Development (KNOMAD) initiative, making it possible to compare migration costs across corridors. It also contributes to the reporting on Sustainable Development Goals Indicator 10.7.1 on “recruitment cost borne by employee as a proportion of monthly income earned in country of destination”.

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New tool for labour migration researchers and policy makers

New tool for labour migration researchers and policy makers

Visit the ILO’s global database of over 90 national laws, policies and regulations that have defined recruitment fees and related costs.

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Female labour migration from Pakistan: A situation analysis

Female labour migration from Pakistan: A situation analysis

This report examines patterns and characteristics of female labour migration from Pakistan, and provides recommendations to ensure that women have equal opportunities for safe and fair migration.

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TRIANGLE in ASEAN Quarterly Briefing Notes

TRIANGLE in ASEAN Quarterly Briefing Notes

TRIANGLE in ASEAN works with labour ministries, workers' and employers' organizations, recruitment agency associations, civil society organizations in six countries in ASEAN; Cambodia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Below Quarterly Briefing Notes give an update on our work during the previous quarter.

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Migration-related Indicators: Tracking progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals and the Seventh National Five-Year Plan

Migration-related Indicators: Tracking progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals and the Seventh National Five-Year Plan

IOM, in close coordination with the Government of Bangladesh, supported the development of migration-related indicators to track progress towards migration-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Seventh Five-Year Plan (SFYP). The initiative has been undertaken through the project, “Bangladesh Sustainable Reintegration and Improved Migration Governance (Prottasha)”, implemented by IOM and funded by the European Union. Based on consultations with key government agencies, international agencies, development partners and think tanks, as well as a review of national documents on the SDGs and the SFYP, a list of national indicators have been developed to improve national monitoring and performance in the migration sector, aligning the indicators already in the SFYP with the corresponding SDG indicators.

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International Dialogue on Migration No. 29: Youth and Migration

International Dialogue on Migration No. 29: Youth and Migration

There are currently more young people in the world than ever, around 1.8 billion, representing the largest generation in history. Of the 258 million international migrants in 2017, around 11 per cent were under 24 years of age. Young people have a key role to play in policy discussions, and are rising up worldwide for their rights and demanding better opportunities and a seat at the table in decision-making processes. Against this background, the 2019 International Dialogue for Migration (IDM) – IOM’s flagship initiative for policy discussion – was dedicated to deliberating how to engage and empower young people as key partners in migration governance. The 2019 IDM responded to calls for greater engagement with young people from participants at previous IDMs and was aligned with the United Nations Youth Strategy, which recognizes the potential of young people to advance progress in many policy areas, thanks to their first-hand experience. Two meetings were organized, the first one in New York on 27 February and the second in Geneva on 15 and 16 October. Some 700 participants attended, representing youth organizations, high-level government offices, non-government organizations, academia, the private sector, and international and regional organizations such as the United Nations, the European Union and the African Union. The panelists were a diverse group in terms of origin, age and background, which offered a comprehensive set of actions, practices and opportunities to support and encourage youth involvement in policy- and decision-making processes. This publication aims to provide an analysis of the role of young people in migration governance, how to engage them and how to unlock their potential to respond to the challenges and opportunities presented by migration. Moreover, it offers the reader an exhaustive collection of best practices, lessons learned and recommendations gathered from the discussions.

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IOM Institutional Strategy on Migration and Sustainable Development

IOM Institutional Strategy on Migration and Sustainable Development

The IOM Institutional Strategy on Migration and Sustainable Development outlines a whole-of-organization approach to comprehensively integrate migration and development into policymaking and programming within IOM. It recognizes that migration, when well managed, can be both a development strategy and a development outcome. The Strategy represents IOM’s direct contribution to the Decade of Action to fast track progress for reaching the Sustainable Development Goals. The Strategy brings greater coherence and development impact to IOM’s activities and allows for a joined up approach to the way the Organization designs and delivers its operations, as called for in IOM’s Strategic Vision. It supports IOM’s active engagement in the UN Development System and hinges on building stronger partnerships within the UN system and beyond.

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Reintegration Counselling: A Psychosocial Approach

Reintegration Counselling: A Psychosocial Approach

The present guide is intended to provide key information on the importance of a psychosocial approach to post-arrival reintegration counselling, describing the basic counselling and communication skills necessary to conduct a successful and psychologically informed reintegration counselling interview with a returned migrant. It is a practical tool to support the reintegration counselor during the reintegration counselling process. It does not cover counselling of specific cases such as victims of trafficking or torture, children and others whose return counselling requires specific training, attitudes and precautions.

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Migration and Communication: Information and Awareness-raising Campaigns in Countries of Origin and Transit. Austrian National EMN Conference 2019 - Briefing paper

Migration and Communication: Information and Awareness-raising Campaigns in Countries of Origin and Transit. Austrian National EMN Conference 2019 - Briefing paper

December 2019 in Vienna. Information and awareness-raising campaigns for migrants or potential migrants in third countries constitute a central element of current European migration strategies, both at the national and European level. Despite the heightened relevance of information and awareness-raising campaigns in current migration policies, little is known about their impact and effectiveness and how they influence migratory behaviour.

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Situation Analysis of Migrant Health in Viet Nam

Situation Analysis of Migrant Health in Viet Nam

Viet Nam is home to dynamic and multi-dimensional population movements. Harnessing the full benefits of the migration process can unlock opportunities and deliver much needed income and prosperity to families and communities, yet migrants themselves have been identified as vulnerable populations facing disadvantages in health care access in Viet Nam and destination countries. The relationship between health and migration is complex and influenced by the socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds of migrants, their previous health history as well as the nature, quality and access to health care systems prior to moving. At regional and global levels, ensuring the health of migrants is a human rights quest and a common responsibility with public health impacts that transcend national boundaries. This is recognized as a key Global Health Goal by the World Health Assembly (WHA) and a tenet of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as evidenced by SDG 3. Good Health and Well-Being and Target 3.8: achieve universal health coverage. The Ministry of Health, Viet Nam in partnership with the International Organization for Migration and World Health Organization jointly undertook a situation analysis of migrant health. Its findings are articulated in this Situation Analysis of Migrant Health in Viet Nam report, which outlines the key needs and steps forward for development of a national action plan to promote the health of migrants in Viet Nam.

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The future of work and migration: 12th ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour (AFML) thematic background paper

The future of work and migration: 12th ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour (AFML) thematic background paper

This paper was prepared to inform and guide the discussions on “Future of Work and Migration” at the 12th ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour (AFML) held from 25 to 26 September 2019 in Bangkok, Thailand. The AFML is a tripartite meeting that brings together governments, employers’ organizations, and workers’ organizations, alongside civil society organizations, to discuss migration governance issues across the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region, and aims to promote and protect migrant workers’ rights.

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Policy Brief - The Implementation of Bangladesh’s Overseas Employment and Migrants Act of 2013 and the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act of 2012 | January 2020

Policy Brief - The Implementation of Bangladesh’s Overseas Employment and Migrants Act of 2013 and the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act of 2012 | January 2020

The International Organization for Migration (IOM), in close coordination with the Government of Bangladesh, conducted a stock-taking exercise of the Overseas Employment and Migrants Act (OEMA) of 2013 and the Prevention and Suppression of Human Trafficking Act (PSHT) of 2012. The initiative was undertaken through the project, “Bangladesh Sustainable Reintegration and Improved Migration Governance (Prottasha)”, implemented by IOM and funded by the European Union. This policy brief summarizes the results of the stock-taking exercise, revealing the implementation scenario of OEMA 2013 and PSHT 2012, including specific factors and challenges. It reviews the existing gaps in the legal provisions and proposes a way forward based on the good practices of other countries for the functional and effective implementation of these two legal frameworks and relevant rules, policies and plans.

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Effective return and reintegration of migrant workers with special focus on ASEAN Member States

Effective return and reintegration of migrant workers with special focus on ASEAN Member States

This report was prepared as the background document for the ASEAN Workshop on Reintegration Programmes for Returning Migrant Workers (27–28 August 2019) in Yogyakarta, organized by the Ministry of Manpower, Government of Indonesia, and the ILO TRIANGLE in ASEAN programme.

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The ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour (AFML) Background information booklet (4th edition)

The ASEAN Forum on Migrant Labour (AFML) is a regional tripartite platform to discuss issues faced by women and men migrant workers from and within ASEAN. The ASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of Migrant Workers (Cebu Declaration) was adopted by the ten ASEAN Member States (AMS) in 2007 in Cebu, the Philippines. The Cebu Declaration shows the AMS’ commitment to protect and promote the rights of migrant workers in the region. In order to advance the principles of the Cebu Declaration, the AFML was established to provide an open platform for governments, employers, workers, and civil society organizations to discuss complex and regional labour migration issues. Twelve AFMLs have been held to date. This publication contains information on the establishment of the AFML, past themes, and the Recommendations adopted at the 3rd–12th AFMLs, showing progress being made toward the implementation of the Cebu Declaration. This background information booklet provides an overview of the AFML process, and is a product of the International Labour Organization (ILO) TRIANGLE in ASEAN programme, a partnership between the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Global Affairs Canada, and the ILO.

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Migration-related Indicators: Tracking progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals and the Seventh National Five-Year Plan (Policy Brief)

Migration-related Indicators: Tracking progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals and the Seventh National Five-Year Plan (Policy Brief)

IOM, in close coordination with the Government of Bangladesh, supported the development of migration-related indicators to track progress towards migration-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Seventh Five-Year Plan (SFYP). The initiative was undertaken through the project, “Bangladesh Sustainable Reintegration and Improved Migration Governance (Prottasha)”, implemented by IOM and funded by the European Union. Based on consultations with key government agencies, international agencies, development partners and think tanks, as well as a review of national documents on the SDGs and the SFYP, a list of national indicators have been developed to improve national monitoring and performance in the migration sector, aligning the indicators already in the SFYP with the corresponding SDG indicators. This Policy Brief provides an overview of those national indicators.

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The Impact of International Migration on Fertility: An Empirical Study

The Impact of International Migration on Fertility: An Empirical Study

This paper focuses on how migration affects fertility in countries of origin and destination through the dissemination of values and information as well as through decisions to postpone the birth of children before departure. The heterogeneity in the fertility of women from various migrant groups is underlined in most studies, many of which indicate that the total fertility rates of migrants originating from high-fertility countries exceed the average in destination countries. While the various mechanisms underlying migrant fertility patterns and convergence have been examined, much less attention has been paid to the diffusion of host-country fertility norms across sending countries by emigrants and returnees. The prospect that immigrant inflows can save low-fertility receiving countries from population aging and decline has, in recent years, become increasingly attractive. Proponents argue for the rejuvenating effect of sustained entries of young migrants in preserving overall population size, the size of the workforce, and the age structure of the population. However, while immigration usually reduces the average age of the host populations, it cannot reverse population aging except through very high and exponentially increasing inflows. The demographic changes occurring in the developing world, particularly the declining birth rates in sending countries, will generate a new dynamic. A new generation of migrants with no spouses or children in the home country will have different motivations than did earlier generations of migrants, for whom sending remittances to a family left behind was a prime consideration, followed – in some cases – by family reunification.

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Migration Projections: The Economic Case

Migration Projections: The Economic Case

This paper adds an economic dimension to the projection of international migration flows. Using existing estimates of international migration flows and demographic projections from the United Nations, the paper analyzes the impact of economic development, expressed as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, on international migration. The analysis was inspired by the migration transition hypothesis – also known as the “migration hump” theory – and confirmed ahypothesized nonlinear relationship between migration and GDP per capita. Despite the large variability of the data, nonparametric fits suggest that emigration rates are relatively low in low-income settings, rise with rising GDP per capita, and decline at high income levels. On the other hand, immigration rates seem to increase unabated with rising income levels. For the projection of international migration flows, the nonparametric curves were parametrized by logistic and bi-logistic functions. Migration projections for 183 countries with constant emigration rates and with migration rates augmented by (projected) GDP per capita were calculated and the results summarized. The results show that international migration flows might substantially increasing when countries pass from low- to high-income economies. The paper also considers possible interactions between labor force dynamics and international migration but finds insufficient evidence for the formal integration of employment dynamics into the formulation of assumptions of international migration. Labor force projections driven by demographic change and projections of labor force participation rates are calculated for 184 countries and summarized. This paper provides strong evidence that economic dynamics should be considered into the formulation of assumption for future trends of international migration.

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